I’ve found this formula very useful for any behavioural change brief, whether trying to get smokers to quit or trying to get people with gum disease to do something about it. Its origins are in organisational change but I don’t see any reason why it shouldn’t work more generally. And indeed it seems to map quite well onto successful behavioural change problems – at least where the behavioural change is deliberate and considered. There’s another school of thought that says we should change behaviour first and attitudes second, but when it comes to quitting smoking people do need to do quite a lot of thinking! I suspect the same is true of other high-engagement decisions: changing banks, perhaps, or deciding to take out some kind of insurance for the first time.